安卓应用安全指南 5.7 使用指纹认证功能

5.7 使用指纹认证功能

原书:Android Application Secure Design/Secure Coding Guidebook

译者:飞龙

协议:CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

目前正在研究和开发的各种用于生物认证的方法中,使用面部信息和声音特征的方法尤其突出。在这些方法中,使用指纹认证来识别个体的方法自古以来就有所使用,并且今天被用于签名(通过拇指印)和犯罪调查等目的。指纹识别的应用也在计算机世界的几个领域中得到了发展,并且近年来,这些方法已经开始作为高度便利的技术(提供诸如易于输入的优点)而享有广泛认可,用于一些领域,例如识别智能手机的物主(主要用于解锁屏幕)。

在这些趋势下,Android 6.0(API Level 23)在终端上整合了指纹认证框架,允许应用使用指纹认证功能来识别个人身份。在下面我们将讨论一些使用指纹认证时要记住的安全预防措施。

5.7.1 示例代码

下面我们提供示例代码,来允许应用使用 Android 的指纹认证功能。

要点:

  1. 声明使用USE_FINGERPRINT权限
  2. AndroidKeyStore供应器获取实例
  3. 通知用户需要指纹注册才能创建密钥
  4. 创建(注册)密钥时,请使用没有漏洞的加密算法(符合标准)
  5. 创建(注册)密钥时,启用用户(指纹)认证请求(不要指定启用认证的持续时间)
  6. 设计你的应用的前提是,指纹注册的状态将在密钥创建和使用密钥期间发生变化
  7. 将加密数据限制为,可通过指纹认证以外的方法恢复(替换)的项东西

MainActivity.java

package authentication.fingerprint.android.jssec.org.fingerprintauthentication;

import android.app.AlertDialog;
import android.hardware.fingerprint.FingerprintManager;
import android.os.Bundle;
import android.support.v7.app.AppCompatActivity;
import android.util.Base64;
import android.view.View;
import android.widget.Button;
import android.widget.TextView;
import java.text.SimpleDateFormat;
import java.util.Date;
import javax.crypto.BadPaddingException;
import javax.crypto.Cipher;
import javax.crypto.IllegalBlockSizeException;

public class MainActivity extends AppCompatActivity {

    private FingerprintAuthentication mFingerprintAuthentication;
    private static final String SENSITIVE_DATA = "sensitive data";

    @Override
    protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        setContentView(R.layout.activity_main);
        mFingerprintAuthentication = new FingerprintAuthentication(this);
        Button button_fingerprint_auth = (Button) findViewById(R.id.button_fingerprint_auth);
        button_fingerprint_auth.setOnClickListener(new View.OnClickListener() {

            @Override
            public void onClick(View v) {
                if (!mFingerprintAuthentication.isAuthenticating()) {
                    if (authenticateByFingerprint()) {
                        showEncryptedData(null);
                        setAuthenticationState(true);
                    }
                } else {
                    mFingerprintAuthentication.cancel();
                }
            }
        });
    }

    private boolean authenticateByFingerprint() {
        if (!mFingerprintAuthentication.isFingerprintHardwareDetected()) {
            // Terminal is not equipped with a fingerprint sensor
            return false;
        }
        if (!mFingerprintAuthentication.isFingerprintAuthAvailable()) {
            // *** POINT 3 *** Notify users that fingerprint registration will be required to create a key
            new AlertDialog.Builder(this)
                .setTitle(R.string.app_name)
                .setMessage("No fingerprint information has been registered.¥n" +
                    "Click ¥"Security¥" on the Settings menu to register fingerprints. ¥n" +
                    "Registering fingerprints allows easy authentication.")
                .setPositiveButton("OK", null)
                .show();
            return false;
        }
        // Callback that receives the results of fingerprint authentication
        FingerprintManager.AuthenticationCallback callback = new FingerprintManager.AuthenticationCallback() {

            @Override
            public void onAuthenticationError(int errorCode, CharSequence errString) {
                showMessage(errString, R.color.colorError);
                reset();
            }

            @Override
            public void onAuthenticationHelp(int helpCode, CharSequence helpString) {
                showMessage(helpString, R.color.colorHelp);
            }

            @Override
            public void onAuthenticationSucceeded(FingerprintManager.AuthenticationResult result) {
                Cipher cipher = result.getCryptoObject().getCipher();
                try {
                    // *** POINT 7*** Restrict encrypted data to items that can be restored (replaced) by methods other than fingerprint authentication
                    byte[] encrypted = cipher.doFinal(SENSITIVE_DATA.getBytes());
                    showEncryptedData(encrypted);
                } catch (IllegalBlockSizeException | BadPaddingException e) {
                }
                showMessage(getString(R.string.fingerprint_auth_succeeded), R.color.colorAuthenticated);
                reset();
            }
            @Override
            public void onAuthenticationFailed() {
                showMessage(getString(R.string.fingerprint_auth_failed), R.color.colorError);
            }
        };
        if (mFingerprintAuthentication.startAuthentication(callback)) {
            showMessage(getString(R.string.fingerprint_processing), R.color.colorNormal);
            return true;
        }
        return false;
    }

    private void setAuthenticationState(boolean authenticating) {
        Button button = (Button) findViewById(R.id.button_fingerprint_auth);
        button.setText(authenticating ? R.string.cancel : R.string.authenticate);
    }

    private void showEncryptedData(byte[] encrypted) {
        TextView textView = (TextView) findViewById(R.id.encryptedData);
        if (encrypted != null) {
            textView.setText(Base64.encodeToString(encrypted, 0));
        } else {
            textView.setText("");
        }
    }

    private String getCurrentTimeString() {
        long currentTimeMillis = System.currentTimeMillis();
        Date date = new Date(currentTimeMillis);
        SimpleDateFormat simpleDateFormat = new SimpleDateFormat("HH:mm:ss.SSS");
        return simpleDateFormat.format(date);
    }

    private void showMessage(CharSequence msg, int colorId) {
        TextView textView = (TextView) findViewById(R.id.textView);
        textView.setText(getCurrentTimeString() + " :¥n" + msg);
        textView.setTextColor(getResources().getColor(colorId, null));
    }

    private void reset() {
        setAuthenticationState(false);
    }
}

FingerprintAuthentication.java

package authentication.fingerprint.android.jssec.org.fingerprintauthentication;

import android.app.KeyguardManager;
import android.content.Context;
import android.hardware.fingerprint.FingerprintManager;
import android.os.CancellationSignal;
import android.security.keystore.KeyGenParameterSpec;
import android.security.keystore.KeyInfo;
import android.security.keystore.KeyPermanentlyInvalidatedException;
import android.security.keystore.KeyProperties;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.security.InvalidAlgorithmParameterException;
import java.security.InvalidKeyException;
import java.security.KeyStore;
import java.security.KeyStoreException;
import java.security.NoSuchAlgorithmException;
import java.security.NoSuchProviderException;
import java.security.UnrecoverableKeyException;
import java.security.cert.CertificateException;
import java.security.spec.InvalidKeySpecException;
import javax.crypto.Cipher;
import javax.crypto.KeyGenerator;
import javax.crypto.NoSuchPaddingException;
import javax.crypto.SecretKey;
import javax.crypto.SecretKeyFactory;

public class FingerprintAuthentication {

    private static final String KEY_NAME = "KeyForFingerprintAuthentication";
    private static final String PROVIDER_NAME = "AndroidKeyStore";
    private KeyguardManager mKeyguardManager;
    private FingerprintManager mFingerprintManager;
    private CancellationSignal mCancellationSignal;
    private KeyStore mKeyStore;
    private KeyGenerator mKeyGenerator;
    private Cipher mCipher;

    public FingerprintAuthentication(Context context) {
        mKeyguardManager = (KeyguardManager) context.getSystemService(Context.KEYGUARD_SERVICE);
        mFingerprintManager = (FingerprintManager) context.getSystemService(Context.FINGERPRINT_SERVICE
        );
        reset();
    }

    public boolean startAuthentication(final FingerprintManager.AuthenticationCallback callback) {
        if (!generateAndStoreKey())
            return false;
        if (!initializeCipherObject())
            return false;
        FingerprintManager.CryptoObject cryptoObject = new FingerprintManager.CryptoObject(mCipher);
        mCancellationSignal = new CancellationSignal();
        // Callback to receive the results of fingerprint authentication
        FingerprintManager.AuthenticationCallback hook = new FingerprintManager.AuthenticationCallback() {

            @Override
            public void onAuthenticationError(int errorCode, CharSequence errString) {
                if (callback != null) 
                    callback.onAuthenticationError(errorCode, errString);
                reset();
            }

            @Override
            public void onAuthenticationHelp(int helpCode, CharSequence helpString) {
                if (callback != null) 
                    callback.onAuthenticationHelp(helpCode, helpString);
            }

            @Override
            public void onAuthenticationSucceeded(FingerprintManager.AuthenticationResult result) {
                if (callback != null) 
                    callback.onAuthenticationSucceeded(result);
                reset();
            }

            @Override
            public void onAuthenticationFailed() {
                if (callback != null) 
                    callback.onAuthenticationFailed();
            }
        };
        // Execute fingerprint authentication
        mFingerprintManager.authenticate(cryptoObject, mCancellationSignal, 0, hook, null);
        return true;
    }

    public boolean isAuthenticating() {
        return mCancellationSignal != null && !mCancellationSignal.isCanceled();
    }

    public void cancel() {
        if (mCancellationSignal != null) {
            if (!mCancellationSignal.isCanceled())

                mCancellationSignal.cancel();
        }
    }

    private void reset() {
        try {
            // *** POINT 2 *** Obtain an instance from the "AndroidKeyStore" Provider
            mKeyStore = KeyStore.getInstance(PROVIDER_NAME);
            mKeyGenerator = KeyGenerator.getInstance(KeyProperties.KEY_ALGORITHM_AES, PROVIDER_NAME);
            mCipher = Cipher.getInstance(KeyProperties.KEY_ALGORITHM_AES
                + "/" + KeyProperties.BLOCK_MODE_CBC
                + "/" + KeyProperties.ENCRYPTION_PADDING_PKCS7);
        } catch (KeyStoreException | NoSuchPaddingException
            | NoSuchAlgorithmException | NoSuchProviderException e) {
            throw new RuntimeException("failed to get cipher instances", e);
        }
        mCancellationSignal = null;
    }

    public boolean isFingerprintAuthAvailable() {
        return (mKeyguardManager.isKeyguardSecure()
            && mFingerprintManager.hasEnrolledFingerprints()) ? true : false;
    }

    public boolean isFingerprintHardwareDetected() {
        return mFingerprintManager.isHardwareDetected();
    }

    private boolean generateAndStoreKey() {
        try {
            mKeyStore.load(null);
            if (mKeyStore.containsAlias(KEY_NAME))
                mKeyStore.deleteEntry(KEY_NAME);
            mKeyGenerator.init(
                // *** POINT 4 *** When creating (registering) keys, use an encryption algorithm that is not vulnerable (meets standards)
                new KeyGenParameterSpec.Builder(KEY_NAME, KeyProperties.PURPOSE_ENCRYPT)
                    .setBlockModes(KeyProperties.BLOCK_MODE_CBC)
                    .setEncryptionPaddings(KeyProperties.ENCRYPTION_PADDING_PKCS7)
                // *** POINT 5 *** When creating (registering) keys, enable requests for user (fingerprint) authentication (do not specify the duration over which authentication is enabled)
                    .setUserAuthenticationRequired(true)
                    .build());
            // Generate a key and store it in Keystore(AndroidKeyStore)
            mKeyGenerator.generateKey();
            return true;
        } catch (IllegalStateException e) {
            return false;
        } catch (NoSuchAlgorithmException | InvalidAlgorithmParameterException
            | CertificateException | KeyStoreException | IOException e) {
            throw new RuntimeException("failed to generate a key", e);
        }
    }

    private boolean initializeCipherObject() {
        try {
            mKeyStore.load(null);
            SecretKey key = (SecretKey) mKeyStore.getKey(KEY_NAME, null);
            SecretKeyFactory factory = SecretKeyFactory.getInstance(KeyProperties.KEY_ALGORITHM_AES, PROVIDER_NAME);
            KeyInfo info = (KeyInfo) factory.getKeySpec(key, KeyInfo.class);
            mCipher.init(Cipher.ENCRYPT_MODE, key);
            return true;
        } catch (KeyPermanentlyInvalidatedException e) {
            // *** POINT 6 *** Design your app on the assumption that the status of fingerprint registration will change between when keys are created and when keys are used
            return false;
        } catch (KeyStoreException | CertificateException 
            | UnrecoverableKeyException | IOException
            | NoSuchAlgorithmException | InvalidKeySpecException 
            | NoSuchProviderException | InvalidKeyException e) {
            throw new RuntimeException("failed to init Cipher", e);
        }
    }
}

AndroidManifest.xml

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<manifest xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
    package="authentication.fingerprint.android.jssec.org.fingerprintauthentication" >
    <!-- +++ POINT 1 *** Declare the use of the USE_FINGERPRINT permission -->
    <uses-permission android:name="android.permission.USE_FINGERPRINT" />
    <application
        android:allowBackup="true"
        android:icon="@mipmap/ic_launcher"
        android:label="@string/app_name"
        android:supportsRtl="true"
        android:theme="@style/AppTheme" >
        <activity
            android:name=".MainActivity"
            android:screenOrientation="portrait" >
            <intent-filter>
                <action android:name="android.intent.action.MAIN" />
                <category android:name="android.intent.category.LAUNCHER" />
            </intent-filter>
        </activity>
    </application>
</manifest>

5.7.2 规则书

使用指纹认证的时候,遵循下列规则:

5.7.2.1 创建(注册)密钥时,请使用没有漏洞的加密算法(符合标准)(必需)

与“5.6 使用密码学”中讨论的密码密钥和公密一样,使用指纹认证功能来创建密钥时,必须使用没有漏洞的加密算法 - 即符合某些标准的算法,来防止第三方的窃听。 事实上,安全和没有漏洞的选择不仅适用于加密算法,而且适用于加密模式和填充。

算法选择的更多信息,请参见“5.6.2.2 使用强算法(特别是符合相关标准的算法)(必需)”部分。

5.7.2.2 将加密数据限制为,可通过指纹认证以外的方法恢复(替换)的东西(必需)

当应用使用指纹认证功能,对应用中的数据进行加密时,应用的设计必须允许通过指纹认证以外的方法恢复(替换)数据。 一般来说,使用生物信息会带来各种问题 - 包括保密性,修改难度和错误识别 - 因此,最好避免单纯依靠生物信息进行认证。

例如,假设应用内部的数据使用密钥加密,密钥由指纹认证功能生成,但存储在终端内的指纹数据随后会被用户删除。 然后用于加密数据的密钥不可用,也不可能复制数据。 如果数据不能通过指纹认证功能以外的某种方式恢复,则存在数据无法使用的巨大风险。

此外,指纹信息的删除不是唯一的情况,即使用指纹认证功能创建的密钥可能变得不可用。 在 Nexus5X 中,如果使用指纹认证功能来创建密钥,然后将该密钥注册为额外的指纹信息,则据观察,之前创建的密钥不可用 [30]。此外,不能排除这种可能性,由于指纹传感器的错误识别,通常可以正确使用的密钥变得不可用。

[30] 信息来自 2016 年 9 月 1 日的版本。 这可能会在未来进行修改。

5.7.2.3 通知用户需要注册指纹才能创建密钥(推荐)

为了使用指纹认证创建密钥,有必要在终端上注册用户的指纹。 设计应用来引导用户进入设置菜单来鼓励指纹注册时,开发人员必须记住,指纹代表重要的个人数据,并且希望向用户解释为什么应用使用指纹信息是必要的或便利的。

通知用户需要注册指纹

if (!mFingerprintAuthentication.isFingerprintAuthAvailable()) {
    // **Point** Notify users that fingerprint registration will be required to create a key
    new AlertDialog.Builder(this)
        .setTitle(R.string.app_name)
        .setMessage("No fingerprint information has been registered.¥n" +
            " Click ¥"Security¥" on the Settings menu to register fingerprints.¥n" +
            " Registering fingerprints allows easy authentication.")
        .setPositiveButton("OK", null)
        .show();
    return false;
}

5.7.3 高级话题

5.7.3.1 Android 应用使用指纹认证功能的先决条件

为了让应用使用指纹认证,必须满足以下两个条件。

  • 用户指纹必须在终端内注册。
  • (特定于应用的)密钥必须关联注册的指纹。

注册用户指纹

用户指纹信息只能通过设置菜单中的“安全”选项进行注册;一般应用不能执行指纹注册过程。 因此,如果应用尝试使用指纹认证功能时未注册指纹,则应用必须引导用户进入设置菜单并鼓励用户注册指纹。 此时,应用需要向用户提供一些解释,说明为什么使用指纹信息是必要和方便的。

另外,作为指纹注册的必要前提条件,终端必须配置一个替代的屏幕锁定机制。 在指纹已在终端中注册的状态下,如果屏幕锁定被禁用,注册的指纹信息将被删除。

创建和注册密钥

为了关联密钥和终端中注册的指纹,请使用由AndroidKeyStore供应器提供的KeyStore实例,来创建并注册新密钥或注册现有密钥。 为了创建关联指纹信息的密钥,请在创建KeyGenerator时配置参数设置,来启用用户认证请求。

创建并注册关联指纹信息的密钥

try {
    // Obtain an instance from the "AndroidKeyStore" Provider
    KeyGenerator keyGenerator = KeyGenerator.getInstance(KeyProperties.KEY_ALGORITHM_AES, "AndroidKeyStore");
    keyGenerator.init(
        new KeyGenParameterSpec.Builder(KEY_NAME, KeyProperties.PURPOSE_ENCRYPT)
            .setBlockModes(KeyProperties.BLOCK_MODE_CBC)
            .setEncryptionPaddings(KeyProperties.ENCRYPTION_PADDING_PKCS7)
            .setUserAuthenticationRequired(true) // Enable requests for user (fingerprint) authentication
            .build());
    keyGenerator.generateKey();
} catch (IllegalStateException e) {
    // no fingerprints have been registered in this terminal
    throw new RuntimeException(“No fingerprint registered”, e);
} catch (NoSuchAlgorithmException | InvalidAlgorithmParameterException
    CertificateException | KeyStoreException | IOException e) {
    // failed to generate a key
    throw new RuntimeException("Failed to generate a key", e);
}

为了关联指纹信息和现有密钥,请使用KeyStore条目,将该密钥注册到已添加设置的东西,来启用用户认证请求。

关联指纹信息和现有密钥

SecretKey key = …; // existing key
KeyStore keyStore = KeyStore.getInstance(“AndroidKeyStore”);
keyStore.load(null);
keyStore.setEntry(
    "alias_for_the_key",
    new KeyStore.SecretKeyEntry(key),
    new KeyProtection.Builder(KeyProperties.PURPOSE_ENCRYPT)
        .setUserAuthenticationRequired(true) // Enable requests for user (fingerprint) authentication
    .build());
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